Morality; women's development; adolescence; conflict resolution; psychology and politics. Carol Gilligan was born in New York on November 28th, She attended Swarthmore College for her undergraduate degree in English Literature, graduating summa cum laude in
She attended Walden Schoola progressive private school on Manhattan's Upper West Sideplayed piano and pursued a career in modern dance during her graduate studies. Gilligan received her B. Gilligan taught for two years at the University of Cambridge from — as the Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions.
Despite being Kohlberg's research assistant, Gilligan argued that Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development were male-oriented, which limited their ability to be generalized to females. Gilligan thus proposed her theory of stages of female moral development based on her idea of moral voices.
According to Gilligan, there are two kinds of moral voices: The masculine voice is "logical and individualistic",  meaning that the emphasis in moral decisions is protecting the rights of people and making sure justice is upheld. The feminine voice places more emphasis on protecting interpersonal relationships and taking care of other people.
This voice focuses on the "care perspective,"  which means focusing on the needs of the individual in order to make an ethical decision.
For Gilligan, Kohlberg's stages of moral development were emphasizing the masculine voice, making it difficult to accurately gauge a woman's moral development because of this incongruity in voices.
Gilligan argues that androgyny, or integrating the masculine and the feminine, is the best way to realize one's potential as a human. Gilligan's stages of female moral development has been shown in business settings as an explanation to the different ways men and women handle ethical issues in the workplace as well.
In contrast to Kohlberg, who claimed that girls did not, and therefore neither women, in general develop their moral abilities to the highest levels, Gilligan argued that women approached ethical problems differently than men.
Women also tend to see moral issues as a problem of conflicting responsibilities rather than competing rights so whilst women perceive the situation as more contextual and narrative men define the situation as more formal and abstract.
She calls the different moral approaches "Ethics of care" and "Ethics of justice" and recognizes them as fundamentally incompatible. She based her conclusions on interviews, not statistical surveys, and never meant for her ideas to be set in stone.
Since we expect women and men to think differently about ethics women and men as a result do present differences.
The different modes of reasoning are therefore a socially constructed dichotomy simply reproducing itself through our expectations of how women and men act.In this essay I will tie the ideas and beliefs of Carol Gilligan with information from our text, the packet read in class and the book, Faces of Feminism.
Carol Gilligan is a lecturer and assistant professor at Harvard University as well as a psychologist. In her book In a Different Voice, Carol Gilligan, a psychologist at Harvard University, wrote about the powerful messages young girls receive from those around them.
Girls are expected to be compliant, quiet and introspective. Liberal feminism asserts the equality of men and women through political and legal reform.
It is an individualistic form of feminism and feminist theory, which focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.
Care ethics was initially developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan during the s from a feminist perspective.
Care ethics was initially developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan during the s from a feminist perspective. Since then, it has been widely applied in various professional fields such as nursing, health care, education, international relations, law, and heartoftexashop.com both care ethics and Confucian ethics consider the family as the foundation of ethics, care ethics is critical of the. Carol Gilligan was born in New York City on November 28, She studied literature at Swarthmore College as an undergrad, and she graduated from Radcliffe in with a master's in psychology. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development is a book on gender studies by American professor Carol Gilligan, published in , which Harvard University Press calls "the little book that started a revolution".
Since then, it has been widely applied in various professional fields such as nursing, health care, education, international relations, law, and heartoftexashop.com both care ethics and Confucian ethics consider the family as the foundation of ethics, care ethics is critical of the. I am a University Professor at New York University, teaching in the School of Law, the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
(Carol Gilligan on Wikipedia) 2. Together with her students, Gilligan founded the Harvard Project on Women’s Psychology and Girls’ Development, and in , she was appointed to Harvard’s first professorship in gender studies. Gilligan is currently a professor at New York University.