The effects of climactic conditions on slope hazards

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The effects of climactic conditions on slope hazards

Mount PinatuboPhilippines, Earthquakes and steam explosions announced the reawakening of Mount Pinatubo insurprising many geologists because Pinatubo was not even listed in catalogs of world volcanoes. This mountain at that time having an elevation of 1, metres, or 5, feet lacked the classic conical shape of a volcano because erosion had carved its summit into a ragged ridge with steep jungle-covered slopes, and there was no written record of any eruptions.

The area surrounding the volcano included densely populated regions. Clark Air Basea major U. Air Force base in the Philippines, also abutted the volcano. A column of gas and ash rising from Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 12,just days before the volcano's climactic explosion on June Geological Survey The eruption developed in several stages.

On March 15,a swarm of small, locally discernible earthquakes began on the northwest side of Pinatubo. On April 2, steam explosions opened up three large steam and sulfur-gas vents, or fumarolesalong a fissure 3 km 1.

Evacuation of residents living within a km 6-mile radius of the summit was recommended. In late April the seismic network was expanded in conjunction with the U. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide SO2 gas from the fumaroles were started on May 13, and the measurements showed the SO2 emissions increasing from metric tons per day to more than 5, tons per day by May On June 1 a new swarm of earthquakes began at shallow depths about 1 km 0.

On June 3 a small explosion signaled the beginning of a new stage of activity. On June 7 an eruption of steam and ash reached a height of 7 to 8 km 4.

From June 8 to June 12, ash eruptions and shallow earthquakes increased.

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About 25, residents left, and Clark Air Base evacuated 14, people. The first major explosive eruption occurred the morning of June 12; it lasted about an hour and generated a column of volcanic gas and ash 20 km 12 miles high. The danger radius was increased to 30 km 19 milesand the total number of evacuees increased to about 60, people.

Another major explosion occurred during the night on June 12, followed by five more over the next two days.

The effects of climactic conditions on slope hazards

The character of the eruptions changed on June 14, with increasing production of pyroclastic flows. Observation of the volcano was greatly hindered by the arrival of a major typhoon on June Ten closely spaced explosive eruptions occurred during the night and morning of that day, but little could be seen.

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The climactic eruption began in the early afternoon of June Visible observations were impossible because of winds and rain brought by the typhoon, but seismographbarographand satellite observations recorded the second largest eruption of the 20th century—exceeded only by the giant eruption of Novarupta near Mount Katmai in Alaska.

The huge Plinian-type eruption of Pinatubo lasted about nine hours. By mid-afternoon, conditions around the volcano included pitch darkness, falling ash and pumice lumps as large as 4 cm 1.

Major ground tremors were felt about every 10 to 15 minutes. Satellite images showed that a giant, umbrella-shaped eruption cloud had formed that was km miles in diameter and 34 km 21 miles high at its apex.This is intended to be a list of notable accidents that occurred during the shooting of films and television, such as cast or crew fatalities or serious accidents that plagued production.

Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Earthquakes and steam explosions announced the reawakening of Mount Pinatubo in , surprising many geologists because Pinatubo was not .

Introduction

Climate change is not a single hazard but an observed change in average global climactic conditions over time. Drastic climate changes have occurred throughout .

The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions - The relevance of time and location can play a huge role towards the levels of hazards and consequences that occur when related to a volcanic eruption.

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for data and photos go to the USS Enterprise (CVN 65) main page: History: The eighth Enterprise (CVA(N)) - the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier – was laid down on 4 February at Newport News, Va., by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co.; launched on 24 September ; sponsored by Mrs. William B. Franke, wife of the Secretary of the Navy; and. Forests are located at various latitudes, and exhibit different terrain and climactic conditions. In addition, human socioeconomic factors also influence forest fire risk. Therefore, areas are accorded different forest fire danger ratings. rainfall conditions than those needed for debris flows on natural slopes. Landslide hazards occur in many places around What Can You Do If You Live Near Steep Hills? 4At the base or top of an old fill slope 4At the base or top of a steep cut slope 4Developed hillsides where leach field septic.

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List of film and television accidents - Wikipedia