Keynesian and Monetarist economics: How do they differ? Lioudis Updated April 3, —
If the total demand for goods at full employment is less than the total output, then the economy has to contract until equality is achieved.
Keynes thus denied that full employment was the natural result of competitive markets in equilibrium. I believe myself to be writing a book on economic theory which will largely revolutionize — not I suppose, at once but in the course of the next ten years — the way the world thinks about its economic problems.
I have called this book the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, placing the emphasis on the prefix general. The object of such a title is to contrast the character of my arguments and conclusions with those of the classical theory of the subject, upon which I was brought up and which dominates the economic thought, both practical and theoretical, of the governing and academic classes of this generation, as it has for a hundred years past.
I shall argue that the postulates of the classical theory are applicable to a special case only and not to the general case, the situation which it assumes being a limiting point of the possible positions of equilibrium.
Moreover, the characteristics of the special case assumed by the classical theory happen not to be those of the economic society in which we actually live, with the result that its teaching is misleading and disastrous if we attempt to apply it to the facts of experience.
A shorter account will be found in the article on Keynesian economics. The classical view for which Keynes made Say a mouthpiece held that the value of wages was equal to the value of the goods produced, and that the wages were inevitably put back into the economy sustaining demand at the level of current production.
Hence, starting from full employment, there cannot be a glut of industrial output leading to a loss of jobs. If there is unemployment and if there are no distortions preventing the employment market from adjusting to it then there will be workers willing to offer their labour at less than the current wage levels, leading to downward pressure on wages and increased offers of jobs.
The classics held that full employment was the equilibrium condition of an undistorted labour market, but they and Keynes agreed in the existence of distortions impeding transition to equilibrium. Keynes on the other hand viewed the market distortions as part of the economic fabric and advocated different policy measures which as a separate consideration had social consequences which he personally found congenial and which he expected his readers to see in the same light.
The distortions which have prevented wage levels from adapting downwards have lain in employment contracts being expressed in monetary terms; in various forms of legislation such as the minimum wage and in state-supplied benefits; in the unwillingness of workers to accept reductions in their income; and in their ability through unionisation to resist the market forces exerting downward pressure on them.
A system can be analysed on the assumption that W is fixed i. This is an instance of wages being fixed in real terms. Saving and investment are necessarily equal, but different factors influence decisions concerning them.
The profitability of investment, on the other hand, is determined by the relation between the return available to capital and the interest rate.
The economy needs to find its way to an equilibrium in which no more money is being saved than will be invested, and this can be accomplished by contraction of income and a consequent reduction in the level of employment.
In the classical scheme it is the interest rate rather than income which adjusts to maintain equilibrium between saving and investment; but Keynes asserts that the rate of interest already performs another function in the economy, that of equating demand and supply of money, and that it cannot adjust to maintain two separate equilibria.
In his view it is the monetary role which wins out. Definitions and ideas[ edit ] The choice of units[ edit ] Main article: Many of the quantities of interest, such as income and consumption, are monetary. Keynes often expresses such quantities in wage units Chapter 4:Classical theory is the basis for Monetarism, which only concentrates on managing the money supply, through monetary policy.
Keynesian economics suggests governments need to use fiscal policy, especially in a recession. Mar 19, · About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners .
Keynesian economics is a theory that says the government should increase demand to boost growth. Keynesians believe consumer demand is the primary driving force in an economy. Keynesians believe consumer demand is the primary driving force in an economy.
Keynesian economics gets its name, theories, and principles from British economist John Maynard Keynes (–), who is regarded as the founder of modern macroeconomics.
His most famous work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, was published in Modern economics incorporates both Keynesian economics and Classical economics as I stated earlier.
In thinking about the aggregate supply curve, it is useful to identify three distinct ranges in the curve, as illustrated in this figure. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (Great Minds) [John Maynard Keynes] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Distinguished British economist John Maynard Keynes () set off a series of movements that drastically altered the ways in which economists view the world. In his most important .