History[ edit ] The charter school idea in the United States was originated in by Ray Budde,  a professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Albert ShankerPresident of the American Federation of Teachersembraced the concept inwhen he called for the reform of the public schools by establishing "charter schools" or "schools of choice.
Eva Moskowitz, founder of the Success Academy charter school network, speaks at a rally for space for new Success charter schools in New York City.
Charter schools represent a small share of the national education market: But their rapid growth over the past two decades has captured an outsized measure of public attention, especially in communities where district and charter schools operate side by side.
Despite long waiting lists and well-documented academic gains for Success students, leaders are in a near-constant battle with city education officials for the space in under-utilized public-school buildings that will allow their programs to continue to grow. Most recently, Moskowitz issued a high-profile rejection of a city plan to house new students from six middle-school programs in two sites, which she and local newspaper editorial boards criticized as an unstable, temporary fix that would force families to travel too far to school.
Advocates argue that charter expansion not only meets the needs of students currently on lengthy waiting lists, but also can improve performance at all public schools due to increased competition and opportunities to innovate and share successful strategies.
Critics say that charters sap resources and siphon off motivated students from under-resourced district schools, which are often already serving poor and low-performing students. The debate is especially heated in communities that practice co-location, in which charters and district schools operate in the same building and share common spaces like libraries and gymnasiums.
To shed light on the question of spillover effects, I use data from New York City to estimate the effects of charter schools on students in two types of nearby district schools: I find that students in district schools do better when charters open nearby: The closer the schools, the larger the effect: These findings show that communities can expand charter schools to meet growing demand without putting district schools at risk of instability or failure.
Far from an existential threat to their district-school neighbors, public charter schools can benefit not only their own students but also those in other programs down the street—or hallway.
There is far less research, however, regarding the potential impacts that charters have on the academic performance of neighboring non-charter students.
Prior studies examining this question have focused on the district level or explored the effects of charter schools located within several miles of a traditional public school. But if the spillover effects of urban charter schools on district schools are confined to relatively small neighborhoods, then findings from prior analyses may well be underestimates.
Bycharter schools accounted for 11 percent of all city schools, up from 2 percent about a decade earlier. Some 60 percent of all charter schools are in co-located buildings; by contrast, 47 percent of all public schools in New York City were co-located in see Figure 1.
The data span 14 years, from —97 to —10, and include students in grades 3—5 attending a district school located in the same community school district a sub-unit of a district where a charter school has at least one overlapping grade.
I focus on elementary schools because charter school penetration was and still is highest in the elementary grades; I define elementary schools as any school that includes 4th grade. Public charter schools are not randomly located—neighborhoods where charters have opened serve greater numbers of low-income students and students of color, who have lower average scores on annual statewide tests in reading and math compared to their wealthier, whiter peers in districts without charter schools.
I therefore restrict my analysis to students in community school districts that include both district and charter schools. I also focus on students with at least two years of scores on annual statewide tests in math and reading, to account for past performance and measure their progress over time.
This results in a total ofunique students attending unique elementary schools. This neighborhood measure meets two key criteria: Finally, due to preferential admissions policies in charter schools, I restrict this neighborhood measure to include only district schools and charter schools located in the same community school district.
New York State law has required charter schools to grant admissions preference to students living in the local community school district since —08; prior to that, many charters followed this practice voluntarily.
Instead, I take advantage of changes over time in the presence of nearby charter schools due to new charters opening. I use the timing of entry of charter schools across the neighborhoods where they open, and their precise locations, to identify their effect using two approaches.
I compare the outcomes of students at district schools after a charter school opens nearby to the outcomes of students in the same schools before a charter opened.Advancing Education Driving transformation in our public schools via the Strategic Plan.
School Data & Reports. The data required to analyze the impact of charter high schools on educational attainment are substantial. One must have data on school type and educational outcomes of individual students prior to high school, individual-level high school attendance and exit information as well as data on high school degree completion and college attendance .
Latest news. Sphere is recruiting a Strategic Communications and Membership Director. Sphere governing bodies meet in Barcelona: Board signs off on Handbook , General Assembly paves the way for expansion of Sphere membership. Administration of the federal Charter Schools Program (CSP) State Educational Agencies Grant - Awarded in Fall and provides $42m grant over 5 years for: a) the program design and initial implementation of charter schools b) expand the number of high quality and educationally diverse charter schools throughout the state by supporting the efforts of charter design teams and .
What are the effects of charter schools on student achievement? Assessing literature that uses either experimental (lottery) or student-level growth- based methods, this analysis infers the causal impact of attending a charter school on student performance.
Charter schools in the United States are primary or secondary education institutions that do not charge fees to pupils who take state-mandated exams. These charter schools are subject to fewer rules, regulations, and statutes than traditional state schools, but receive less public funding than public schools, typically a fixed amount per heartoftexashop.com are both non-profit and for-profit charter.