She handled cases involving women, juveniles and children. There has been some dispute over who actually was the first female police officer due to the fact that early women in policing had such varied job tasks and did not do street patrol. They were often viewed as mothers with badges. Some of their early duties involved patrolling dance halls to keep tango dancers at least 10 inches apart and patrolling beaches to stop clandestine activity.
And these are just two examples: There are some important exceptions to the disparity pattern. Several big city police departments are majority-black or majority-Hispanic Atlanta, Birmingham, Detroit, Washington, Miami, Santa Fe and El Paso, for instancewhile others such as Chicago are so diverse that no single group comprises the majority.
Yet for many other cities, the gap between the complexion of the police department and the local population is huge.
Why does this matter? Do police officers of different racial and ethnic backgrounds act differently while on the job? Do they have different kinds of relationships with minority communities?
A study in Indianapolis Indiana and St. Petersburg Florida by Ivan Sun and Brian Payne, for example, found that black officers were more likely than white officers working in black neighborhoods to provide information, referrals to other agencies, and to treat residents respectfully, although the black officers were also more likely to use physical force against citizens in conflict situations.
Shared training in the academy, as well as on-the-job socialization by fellow officers, results in more similarities than differences among officers when it comes to their policing activities, including similarities in how officers of all races treat white versus non-white citizens.
So we should not view racial diversification on the force as a panacea for improving police treatment of minorities: A study in Baltimore, Maryland by Peter Moskos documented precisely this shared mentality among both white and black officers.
But it can pay major dividends in other ways. Importantly, such diversity can help to build trust and confidence in the police: It also helps, in majority-black or majority-Hispanic cities, if the chief of police comes from that community as well because, as the public face of the department, he or she can allay suspicions when controversial incidents occur in a way that white police chiefs may not be able to do.
A diverse police force can also help to decrease the sense that individuals are being stopped and questioned solely because of their race.
This clearly applies when the officers and citizens are of the same race, but even encounters between white officers and minority citizens may be perceived as less racialized when the department has a critical mass of minority officers. A representative police force can, in other words, have symbolic benefits that enhance the overall status of a police department and also reduce the perception that actions, such as stops or searches, are based on racial profiling.
Most police chiefs realize the advantages of a department that represents the local community, but there are big challenges in recruiting more minority officers. Many Hispanics and African Americans are reluctant to consider a career in law enforcement — not surprising, given the history of policing in America coupled with more recent events.
Highly-publicized incidents like the killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson and Eric Garner in New York only make it more difficult for police departments to recruit minority officers. Recruiters can have some success, however, if they broaden their outreach efforts to include churches and community centers — and if there are pre-existing positive relationships between the police and residents in those minority neighborhoods where community policing has already taken root, which can be built on.
Although troubled interactions between minorities and police garner most of the headlines, there are neighborhoods in American cities where working-class and middle-class black and Hispanic residents — including youths — have better relationships with the authorities than on average, as I found in a study of Washington DC neighborhoods.
It is in these communities that the police can enhance their recruitment efforts and achieve at least some success. Racial diversification is one crucial ingredient in a larger program of reform that is required to improve police departments throughout the country.
A representative police force is not a panacea — but it is a positive reform, and an achievable one.FACT SHEET: Strengthening Community Policing Recent events in Ferguson, Missouri and around the country have highlighted the importance of strong, collaborative relationships between local police and the communities they protect.
With assistance from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services of the U.S. Department of Justice and the national Community Policing Consortium, thousands of America’s police departments–large, medium, and small–are working to develop organizational philosophies and strategies for the implementation of community policing.
Essay on Community Policing in Canada - Community Policing in Canada Community policing is a relatively new model of service delivery that is employed by the majority of police forces across Canada.
Broken windows policing is a form of policing based on broken windows theory. It is also sometimes called quality-of-life policing. William J. Bratton popularized this policing strategy as New York City's police commissioner during the mids. Community-oriented policing is designed to put police officers as liaisons into the communities they serve and protect.
With the advent of a new millennium, major departments across the country have implemented “community-based” policing in order to ‘build trust’ within their communities (Roth, ).
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