Computer and Internet use These data on computer and Internet use at work come from a special supplemental survey last conducted in October Computer and Internet Use at Work Article: Computer and Internet use at work in February PDF Contingent and alternative employment arrangements Contingent workers are people who do not expect their jobs to last or who reported that their jobs are temporary. They do not have an implicit or explicit contract for continuing employment.
Meaning and Concept of Planning In simple words, planning is deciding in advance what is to be done, when where, how and by whom it is to be done.
Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. It includes the selection of objectives, policies, procedures and programmes from among alternatives. A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a specified goal.
It is an intellectual process characterized by thinking before doing. It is an attempt on the part of manager to anticipate the future in order to achieve better performance.
Planning is the primary function of management.
Definitions of Planning Different authors have given different definitions of planning from time to time. The main definitions of planning are as follows: When a manager plans, he projects a course of action for further attempting to achieve a consistent co-ordinate structure of operations aimed at the desired results.
According to Billy E. Planning is an Intellectual Process Planning is an intellectual process of thinking in advance. It is a process of deciding the future on the series of events to follow. Planning is a process where a number of steps are to be taken to decide the future course of action.
Managers or executives have to consider various courses of action, achieve the desired goals, go in details of the pros and cons of every course of action and then finally decide what course of action may suit them best.
Planning Contributes to the Objectives Planning contributes positively in attaining the objectives of the business enterprise. Since plans are there from the very first stage of operation, the management is able to handle every problem successfully.
Plan try to set everything right. A purposeful, sound and effective planning process knows how and when to tackle a problem. This leads to success. Objectives thus are easily achieved. Planning is a Primary Function of Management Planning precedes other functions in the management process.
Certainly, setting of goals to be achieved and lines of action to be followed precedes the organization, direction, supervision and control.
No doubt, planning precedes other functions of management. It is primary requisite before other managerial functions step in. But all functions are inter-connected. It is mixed in all managerial functions but there too it gets precedence. It thus gets primary everywhere. A continuous Process Planning is a continuous process and a never ending activity of a manager in an enterprise based upon some assumptions which may or may not come true in the future.
Therefore, the manager has to go on modifying revising and adjusting plans in the light of changing circumstances.
According to George R. It involves continuous collection, evaluation and selection of data, and scientific investigation and analysis of the possible alternative courses of action and the selection of the best alternative.
Planning Pervades Managerial Activities From primary of planning follows pervasiveness of planning. It is the function of every managerial personnel. The character, nature and scope of planning may change fro personnel to personnel but the planning as an action remains intact.
Action is required, the enterprise must operate managerial planning seeks to achieve a consistent, coordinated structure of operations focused on desired trends.Every man is a work in progress, but here are 30 characteristics of a good guy any man can grow and become.
Characteristics of a good marketing plan include the upfront research and planning aspects you can then use to build effective communications. Before you commit your budget, review your. Recommended budget practices encourage governments to consider the longer-term consequences of such actions to ensure that the impacts of budget decisions are understood over a multi-year planning horizon and to assess whether program and service levels can be sustained.
Defined contribution plans have become a major source of retirement savings for American workers as the number of employers offering defined benefit plans to employees has declined. 1 There are a variety of defined contribution plan types available, including savings and thrift plans.
Features can vary among employer-sponsored savings and thrift plans. College provides an opportunity for students to become independent and create a life outside of their parents' home. In order to develop a realistic picture of independent life, students should prepare an.
ing has always been about information, and budget systems are about gathering the best information available, whether that information be primarily of a techni- cal nature or primarily of a political nature, and bringing that information to bear.