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London in [ edit ] Map of London by Wenceslas Hollarc. There were 30, deaths due to the plague in35, inand 10, inas well as smaller numbers in other years. London at that time consisted of a city of about acres surrounded by a city wallwhich had originally been built to keep out raiding bands.
There was no sanitation, and open drains flowed along the centre of winding streets. The cobbles were slippery with animal dung, rubbish and the slops thrown out of the houses, muddy and buzzing with flies in summer and awash with sewage in winter.
The City Corporation employed "rakers" to remove the worst of the filth and it was transported to mounds outside the walls where it accumulated and continued to decompose. The stench was overwhelming and people walked around with handkerchiefs or nosegays pressed against their nostrils. Carts, carriages, horses and pedestrians were crowded together and the gateways in the wall formed bottlenecks through which it was difficult to progress.
The nineteen-arch London Bridge was even more congested. The better-off used hackney carriages and sedan chairs to get to their destinations without getting filthy. The poor walked, and might be splashed by the wheeled vehicles and drenched by slops being thrown out and water falling from the overhanging roofs.
Another hazard was the choking black smoke belching forth from factories which made soapfrom breweries and iron smelters and from about 15, houses burning coal. These were shanty towns with wooden shacks and no sanitation.
The government had tried to control this development but had failed and over a quarter of a million people lived here. These properties were soon vandalised and became rat-infested slums.
Both inside the City and outside its boundaries there were also Libertieswhich were areas of varying sizes which historically had been granted rights to self-government. Many had been associated with religious institutions, and when these were abolished in the Dissolution of the Monasteriestheir historic rights were transferred along with their property to new owners.
The walled City was surrounded by a ring of Liberties which had come under its authority, contemporarily called 'the City and Liberties', but these were surrounded by further suburbs with varying administrations.
Westminster was an independent town with its own liberties, although it was joined to London by urban development.
The Tower of London was an independent liberty, as were others. Areas north of the river not part of one of these administrations came under the authority of the county of Middlesexand south of the river under Surrey. The credulous blamed emanations from the earth, "pestilential effluviums", unusual weather, sickness in livestock, abnormal behaviour of animals or an increase in the numbers of moles, frogs, mice or flies.
The recording of deaths[ edit ] Further information: Searcher of the dead In order to judge the severity of an epidemic, it is first necessary to know how big the population was in which it occurred. There was no official census of the population to provide this figure, and the best contemporary count comes from the work of John Graunt —who was one of the earliest Fellows of the Royal Society and one of the first demographersbringing a scientific approach to the collection of statistics.
Inhe estimated thatpeople lived in the City of London, the Liberties, Westminster and the out-parishes, based on figures in the bills of mortality published each week in the capital. These different districts with different administrations constituted the officially recognised extent of London as a whole.
Inhe revised his estimate to 'not above ,'. Other contemporaries put the figure higher, the French Ambassador, for example, suggestedbut with no mathematical basis to support their estimates.
The next largest city in the kingdom was Norwich, with a population of 30, Yersinia pestis bacteria appear as a dark mass in the gut.
The bacteria block the flea's digestive system, leaving it hungry but unable to eat.Ralph Tailor's Summer: A Scrivener, His City and the Plague [Keith Wrightson] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The plague outbreak of in Newcastle-upon-Tyne was one of the most devastating in English history. This hugely moving study looks in detail at its impact on the city through the eyes of a man who stayed as others fled: the scrivener Ralph Tailor.
Historiography: Historiography, the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical.
A Time-line for the History of Mathematics (Many of the early dates are approximates) This work is under constant revision, so come back later.
Please report any errors to me at [email protected] The plague outbreak of in Newcastle-upon-Tyne was one of the most devastating in English history.
This hugely moving study looks in detail at its impact on the city through the eyes of a man who stayed as others fled: the scrivener Ralph Tailor.
Black Britain (3) There are many portraits of common Blacks still in existence in Europe, for those still not convinced of the degenerate lying nature of the Albinos, we offer their explanation for these native European Blacks - THEY'RE AFRICANS!
AF Leach 'The Schools of Medieval England' () [page v] PREFACE.
THIS is the first attempt at a history of English Schools before the Reformation, reckoned from the accession of Edward VI.